*** Please note: more information and references are available through the Africa Groundwater Atlas Africa Groundwater Literature Archive ***


There are number of references available describing aspects of the hydrogeology mainly in French.


There are 181 references available. Currently 23 of these are available to download in PDF format.

Key References


The French colonial administration undertook the first hydrogeological reconnaissance studies in 1910. The earliest report is a description of groundwater occurrence in Tulear Province by Poisson (1921). Hydrogeological studies were conducted, especially in the more arid southern and western basins, from 1961. A series of district hydrogeological reports were produced by Lemaire in 1963.

The first hydrogeological map of Madagascar was produced in 1972. Most of the references from the 1960-1990 period report aspects of geomorphology, rock formation weathering, and the distribution of minor elements within the mainly lateritic soils. The UNDP reviewed the hydrogeology of Madagascar by (1989).

During 1987-1993, groundwater flow patterns through weathered Precambrian Basement strata was studied in the Ambohitrakoho catchment, north of Antananarivo in central Madagascar, by Grillot and others. Grillot and Ferry (1990) describe the characteristics of the Precambrian Basement aquifers in this catchment. Besairie (1995) describes the hydrogeology of Vohemar District. The growing influence of International Aid organisations and NGOs utilising groundwater to improve rural water supplies especially as part of national poverty reduction strategies is reported by JICA (1991), UNICEF (1997), UN (2000), and WaterAid (2002, 2005), African Development Fund (2005), WHO/UNICEF (2001-2006) and the UNDP/World Bank (1997, 2003-2006).

In 2003 efforts were concentrated on the development of groundwater resources in the drought affected southern part of the island (Autorite Nationale de L'Eau et de L'Assinissement, 2003). Rakotondrainibe (2005) sub-divides Madagascar into 8 hydrogeological, producing a review of the hydrogeology of the island (Rakotondrainibe (2006).

As part of the geological mapping of the northern and central parts of Madagascar (British Geological Survey, et al. (2008) a series of 7 hydrogeological reconnaissance maps at 1:500 000 scale were produced (Davies, 2008). The general hydrogeology of the regions covered by these maps is described in Chapter 14 of the main report (Davies, 2008). The hydrogeological interpretation was partly based upon geomorphological information gathered by Jordan (2005).