*** Please note: more information and references are available through the Africa Groundwater Atlas Africa Groundwater Literature Archive ***


There are numerous references available on hydrogeology . These reflect the large number of BGS staff employed on secondment to the Geological Survey during the 1970-1990 period who subsequently deposited copies of annual reports, project reports and geological map memoirs with the BGS archive. Long term hydrogeological research projects undertaken by BGS of Karoo-age and other aquifers generated a substantial number of reports.


There are 534 references available. Currently 146 of these are available to download in PDF format.

Key References


During the pre-1960 period, the development of groundwater resources of Botswana, then the Bechuanaland Protectorate, was the responsibility of the Geological survey. The annual reports record the formal establishment of a groundwater section at the Bechuanaland Geological Survey in 1951 and its subsequent development. These records include the application of geophysical prospecting methods for the location of borehole drilling sites in the Kalahari. Water boreholes drilled are reported in these documents.

The 1960-1990 period saw several major developments in hydrogeology in Botswana. The development of groundwater in Botswana during this period is recorded within the annual reports of the Geological Survey. These developments include groundwater supply to townships and villages, to cattle trek routes, to power stations and most important of all to mineral extraction industries especially the diamond mines at Orapa and Jwaneng. The part BGS played in these developments is recorded in the reports and geological memoirs produced by staff seconded to the Geological Survey from BGS and under OSAS contract.

BGS staff fully contributed to the GS10 groundwater development project assessing Karoo age sandstone and basalt aquifers and Transvaal Dolomite aquifers during 1978-1981. BGS advisors also supported the development and operation of wellfields supplying the Orapa and Jwaneng diamond mines during 1983-1985.

Towards the end of this period responsibility for the development of groundwater resources became the responsibility of the Department of Water Affairs, the Geological Survey retaining a groundwater exploration and hydrogeological mapping role. Increasingly international and regional groundwater consultants undertook studies in support of infrastructure developments such as the assessment and development of Karoo aquifers to supply the Jwaneng and Orapa diamond mines, the assessment of the ephemeral rivers of N.E. Botswana as sources of water for Selebi Pikwe, Francistown and ultimately Gaborone, rural water supply especially in eastern Botswana, and the development of major road networks. These developments stimulated groundwater recharge studies especially in the Kalahari.

During the post 1990 period BGS in the assessment of groundwater resources of sand rivers and the application of collector wells for their development for the Department of Water Affairs (1994-1998). BGS in partnership with Wellfield Consulting Services studied the Karoo aquifers of the Matsheng area of the western Kalahari for the Geological Survey (1994-1996).